Local Color is the color an object would be under ordinary, neutral daylight, I.E. before it’s affected by light and shadow.
Here’s an example: orange on a table. Let’s just put the local color in there:
This is the local color. We can cast all sorts of different lights on it, but the local color stays the same. Let’s see the image in different lighting situations:
Same local color but depending on the light we perceive a different color. Learning to separate out the Local Color from the Perceived Color in your mind will help you color objects more accurately.